Swans, Geese & Allies

These are the tribes that make up the subfamily Anserinae. Several odd waterfowl are in this subfamily and have unique challenges in aviculture.

Click the thumbnails for species accounts of the swans, geese and their allies.

Pink-eared Duck

Freckled Duck

Cape Barren Goose

Coscoroba Swan

True Swans

The largest and most majestic of waterfowl, the swan is graceful but also the most territorial and pugnacious. Cobs (males) tend to be more aggressive than their pens (females) and can be particularly troublesome during the breeding season. It is best to keep swans on larger water bodies, where they will spend most of their time.

Swans are vegetarian and can live for 30 years. Pair bonds are strong and swans usually mate for life. Mute, Black and Whooper Swans are prolific breeders but other species breed more sporadically. Bewick’s Swan is included here as a sub-species of the Tundra Swan.

Black Swan

Black-necked Swan

Mute Swan

Trumpeter Swan

Tundra Swan

Whooper Swan

True Geese

All true geese originate from the northern hemisphere. They are distinct from the ‘look alike’ sheldgeese of the southern hemisphere. They can be divided into two groups; pale-breasted geese and dark-breasted geese. The two groups make up a total of sixteen species from the popular Red-breasted Goose through to the less common Snow Goose.

In the wild, geese are gregarious, particularly so out of the breeding season, on migration and on their wintering grounds. In captivity a single pair of most species will thrive and breed but if space permits it is more natural to keep more than one pair of the same or different species together. Ornamental ducks may also be kept with ornamental geese, usually without difficulty although sheldgeese and some shelducks mix less successfully.

Geese need plenty of grazing space, so concentrate on ducks if your enclosure is small. Assuming extra feeding, in addition to grazing particularly in winter, a rough guide is ten pairs per acre. Geese bond for life. While the sexes look identical they can breed in captivity in the third year. For breeding and for general wellfare, all geese need a pond. 

Brant Goose

Red-breasted Goose

Nēnē Goose

Canada Goose

Barnacle Goose

Cackling Goose

Bar-headed Goose

Emperor Goose

Ross’s Goose

Snow Goose

Greylag Goose

Swan Goose

Taiga Bean Goose

Pink-footed Goose

Tundra Bean Goose

Greater White-fronted 

Lesser White-fronted


  • Pink-eared Duck  Malacorhynchus membranaceus
  • Freckled Duck  Stictonetta naevosa
  • Cape Barren Goose Cereopsis novaehollandiae
    • C. n. novaehollandiae
    • C. n. grisea
  • Coscoroba Swan Coscoroba coscoroba
Cygnini (True Swans)
  • Black Swan Cygnus atratus
  • Black-necked Swan Cygnus melancoryphus
  • Mute Swan Cygnus olor
  • Trumpeter Swan Cygnus buccinator
  • Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus
    • C. c. columbianus
    • C. c. bewickii
  • Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus
Anserini (True Geese)
  • Brant Goose Branta bernicla
    • Black-bellied B. b. nigricans
    • Dark-bellied B. b. bernicla
    • Pale-bellied B. b. hrota
    • B. b. orientalis
  • Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis
  • Nene Goose Branta sandvicensis
  • Canada Goose Branta canadensis
    • Dusky B. c. occidentalis
    • Vancouver B. c. fulva
    • Giant B.c. maxima
    • Lesser B. c. parvipes
    • Moffit’s B. c. moffitti
    • Hudson Bay B. c. interior
    • Atlantic B. c. canadensis
  • Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis
  • Cackling Goose Branta hutchinsii
    • Aleutian B. h. leucopareia
    • B. h. minima
    • Taverner’s B. h. taverneri
    • Richardson’s B. h.hutchinsii
  • Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus
  • Emperor Goose Anser canagicus
  • Ross’s Goose Anser rossii
  • Snow Goose Anser caerulescens
    • A. c. caerulescens
    • A. c. atlanticus
  • Greylag Goose Anser anser
    • Western A. a. anser
    • Eastern A. a. rubrirostris
  • Swan Goose Anser cygnoid
  • Taiga Bean Goose Anser fabalis
    • A. f. fabalis
    • A. f. johanseni
    • A. f. middendorffii
  • Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus
  • Tundra Bean Goose Anser serrirostris
    • A. f. rossicus
    • A. f. serrirostris
  • Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons
    • A. a. flavirostris
    • A. a. albifrons
    • A. a. elgasi
    • A. a. gambelli
    • A. a. sponsa
  • Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus

Waterfowl FAQ

In biology, taxonomy is the science of naming, defining and classifying groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the founder of the current system of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorizing organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics, cladistics, and systematics, the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct. All life which has ever existed on Earth is a gradient of relatedness, and taxonomy allows us to make a phylogenetic tree showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities, based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics. Think of it as a huge family tree!

Breeds and species are two groups of living things that can breed with the members of the same group. Breed is mostly used to describe groups of domestic animals while all non-hybrid life forms belong to a species. The main difference between a breed and a species is that a breed is a specific population that is selectively bred for the preservation of specific characteristics whereas a species is the largest group that can routinely produce fertile offspring through breeding. Therefore, a breed is a smaller group of animals than species. Think of a breed as a domesticated version of a subspecies, which has been subjected to artificial, as opposed to natural, selection. All domestic waterfowl are descended from a select few species: the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) for all duck breeds except the domestic Muscovy Duck, which is descended from the wild species (Cairina moschata) of the same name, and the Greylag (Anser anser) and Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides) for domestic geese. For a breed to be standardised it has to have proven to breed predictably for several generations.

A true-breeding organism, sometimes also called a purebred, is an organism that always passes down certain phenotypic (i.e. physically expressed) traits to its offspring of many generations. An organism is referred to as true breeding for each trait to which this applies, and the term ‘true-breeding’ is also used to describe individual genetic traits.

In Mendelian genetics, this means that an organism must be homozygous for every trait for which it is considered true breeding; that is, the pairs of alleles that express a given trait are the same. In a purebred strain or breed, the goal is that the organism will ‘breed true’ for the breed-relevant traits.

Waterfowl showing is fairly easy – a bird in good condition, is pretty much in show condition. Cleaning beaks, legs and feet is desirable just before penning. It is much better to provide the opportunity for birds to clean themselves and stay clean rather than try to clean their feathers yourself. Shows are a great place to see the diverse varieties, compare the quality of your bird(s) and gain customers for your stock. All standardised varieties of waterfowl can be exhibited and if your bird’s attributes, breeding and conformation fit a breed standard, you may be taking some trophies home! Ensure your bird is a true representative of a standardised variety — unfortunately just because it was sold to you as a particular one, doesn’t necessarily mean it is, so prior research will pay dividends. The standards for each breed is published in the British Waterfowl Standards. You could attend local shows first, though novices are welcome at our Champion Waterfowl Exhibition too. Speak to exhibitors — no question is a silly question, we have all been new once so go ahead and ask away! Just remember not to disturb or distract judges while they are judging.

In the UK we face few restrictions as to which species of waterfowl we can keep. Only the (North American) Ruddy Duck is prohibited. This is to protect the endangered White-headed Duck.

As long as you keep them contained, that means not released or allowed to escape, you may keep all the other Anseriformes. All may be traded freely as long as they are individulally proven as captive bred. This means close ringed or microchipped for identification. Our native and ordinarily resident birds listed in Appendix 2 of the General Licence may be moved without a ring. Mute Swan and Egyptian Goose require an individual licence to be moved.

Our responsibility to these birds is to keep them in conditions sympathetic to a contented mental state. They should be adequately fed and watered, kept in comfortable conditions with relation to their size and normal habits, and sheltered from weather extremes. We should protect them from pain, injury and disease and allow them the freedom to express normal behaviour. We should do all in our power to protect them from fear and distress.

Essentially, these are summed up in the five freedoms of animal welfare. Expanded; four physical or functional domains of nutrition, environment, heath and behaviour surround and influence the mental state. The Five Domains are key to the highest standards of welfare.

As the British Waterfowl Association we believe that the highest standard of welfare should remain one of our core values.

Read the paper about Fundamental Welfare Requirements here.

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